A process for finding a remote terminal or secure VPN virtual private network. In a call back, the host system detaches the caller before dialing the sanctioned telephone number of the remote terminal in order to reestablish the connection.
A restrictive label which has been applied to data that is classified or unclassified to increase the protection of the data while further restricting data access.
An overwriting internet security threat which overwrites either slack space in or behind the intended program file or sections of null data in the file. Thus, it can infect host files without increasing the length of the file or effecting the host's functionality.
Computer Emergency Response Team (network, Internet, security) The CERT was formed by ARPA in November 1988 in response to the needs exhibited during the Internet worm incident. The CERT charter is to work with the Internet community to facilitate its response to computer security events involving Internet hosts, to take proactive steps to raise the community's awareness of computer security issues, and to conduct research targeted at improving the security of existing systems. CERT products and services include 24-hour technical assistance for responding to computer security incidents, product vulnerability assistance, technical documents, and tutorials. In addition, the team maintains a number of mailing lists (including one for CERTAdvisories), and provides an anonymous FTP server, at "cert.org", where security-related documents and tools are archived.
A file that attests to the identity of an organization or web browser user and is used to verify that data being exchanged over a network is from the intended source. The certificate is digitally signed either by a Certificate Authority or is self-signed. There are many certificates involved in providing Internet security and online security; 128-bit certificates are one kind, secure SSL certificates are another. Today 128 Bit SSL digital certificates are the most common type of SSL certificates.
A list maintained by the Certificate Authority of all certificates that are revoked, but not expired. A certificate may be revoked because the user's private key is assumed to be compromised, the user is no longer certified by this Certificate Authority, or the Certificate Authorities private key is assumed to be compromised.
The complete assessment of the technical and nontechnical security functions of a system and other safeguards that are made for the accreditation process, which establishes the degree to which a particular plan and implementation meet a certain set of security conditions.
A third party organisation which is used to confirm the relationship between a party to the https transaction and that party's public key. Certification authorities may be widely known and trusted institutions for internet based transactions, though where https is used on companies internal networks, an internal department within the company may fulfil this role.
A Certificate Signing Request (CSR) is a text file generated by a Web server that contains information about your organization (name, address etc) as well as your server's public key
An authentication method that can be used when connecting to an Internet Service Provider. CHAP allows you to login to your provider automatically, without the need for a terminal screen. It is more secure than the Password Authentication Protocol (another widely used authentication method) since it does not send passwords in text format.
A method for SSL Server Security. A security procedure in which one communicator requests authentication of another communicator, and the latter replies with a pre-established appropriate reply.
Antiviral security software which searches for alterations in the system of a computer. A internet security threat must change something, and it presumes that program files, disk system areas and certain areas of memory should not be the thing to change. It makes use of strong encryption, sometimes known as authentication software. See CHAP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol.
A checksum is a value that is used to check the integrity of data. Checksums are generated by a function that is dependent upon the data in question. For security purposes, checksums are generated by one-way hash functions. Once a checksum has been generated, it is either stored with or transmitted with the data in question. The integrity of the data can be checked by generating a new checksum. If the two checksums are identical, then the file has not changed. If the two checksums are different, then the data (or file) in question has been altered.
An attack where the cryptanalyst may choose the ciphertext to be decrypted.
A form of cryptanalysis where the cryptanalyst may choose the plaintext to be encrypted.
An encryption - decryption cryptographic algorithm.
A block cipher form which improves electronic codebook mode because it chains together blocks of ciphertext it makes. This form operates by combining the algorithm's ciphertext output block with the next plaintext block in order to make the next input block.
A block cipher mode which improves electronic codebook mode because it chains together the blocks of ciphertext it makes. It also operates on plaintext sections of all different lengths equal to or less than the block length.
An string of data that appears to be completely haphazard. Like text that is encrypted or been through SSL encryption, ciphertext carries little or no information to an entity that is unauthorized. An original message or plaintext, however, can be pulled out with an appropriate key and algorithm that decrypts with SSL decryption.
A form of cryptanalysis where the cryptanalyst has some ciphertext but nothing else.
An assembly of classified information to which a hierarchical, restrictive security label is attached in order to heighten the protection of the data, which provides network security and online security.
Also the level of protection required in order to apply certain information.
Information officially mandated by a security policy that is to be given data confidentiality service and is to be denoted with a special security label in order to signify the status of its protection.
an environment where the ensuing conditions hold true:
(a) Application developers that have adequate clearances and authorizations to offer an acceptable presumption that they haven’t launched malicious logic. Authorizations and validations are often performed via 128-Bit SSL (secure socket layer).
(b) Configuration control gives ample assurance that the SSL applications and equipment are protected against malicious logic prior to and during the functioning of system applications.
(a)The machine-readable form of a computer program, produced by conversion of the human-written program (source code) into binary code by a compiler or interpreter
(b) A symbol scheme that represents information, which could initially have a different representation. This is regularly viewed synonymously with cipher or encryption; codes more often than not, however, have fixed meaning relations, not an algorithmic transformation of data.
The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny authorized persons information of value which might be derived from the possession and study of telecommunications, or to mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretation of the results of such possession and study. Communications security involves cryptosecurity, transmission security, emission security, and physical security of communications security material and information.
SSL digital certificates use encryption with a secure sockets layer (SSL) crypto-algorithm in a computer, microprocessor, or microcomputer in order to execute encryption or decryption to guard information by ciphering it with 128-bit encryption in order to provide Internet security and online security. It can also be use to authenticate users, sources, or information.
It used to be the full means of acquiring legal evidence from computers and computer use. Now computer forensics has seemingly restricted itself solely to recovery of data from computers and computer media. It is now only one part of digital forensics.
An self-governing assessment of the controls used to ensure proper protection of an institution's information assets. An official computer security audit has goals and procedures that are different from the usual and ongoing audit process.
A technique of gaining confidentiality by concealing vulnerable information by embedding it in irrelevant data.
The idea of possessing sensitive data in confidence, restricted to a precise set of individuals or organizations.
An emergency response plan, including backup operations and post-disaster recovery that might be maintained with activity as a part of its security program, guaranteeing the accessibility of critical resources and making the continuity of operations in an emergency situation possible. See also disaster recovery plan and business continuity plan.
A small piece of data, originally intended to keep state between web browser accesses to a server. Now used in many SSL Secured servers .
The evaluation of the costs of supplying data protection for a system against the cost of losing or compromising the data.
A countermeasure is any action, device, procedure or technique which reduces the susceptibility of or danger to a system. See also safeguard.
A communications channel allowing two cooperating procedures to transmit information in a way violating the system's security policy, hurting online security.
Any one who attempts to cut into the security of, and gain access to, someone else's system without having been invited. The term is a try to avoid the controversial usage of hacker. See also adversary and intruder. secure servers using SSL often prevent unauthorized logins of this kind with secure validation.
The art of decoding text. Cryptanalysis is a complex process, involving statistical analysis, analytical reasoning, math tools and pattern-finding. It is a way to figure out how to break down Internet Security.
Widely used as an abbreviation for cryptography, cryptographic, cryptology or even encryption.
A process or sequence of rules or steps that is well-define and is used to convert a key stream or ciphertext from plaintext and vice versa. Crypto-algorithm is an older usage.
A one-way function attached to a file in order to construct a unique "fingerprint" of the file for reference at a later time. Recurrently part of the development of generating a digital signature.
See key cryptography the process -- principles, means and methods -- for making information unintelligible or for restoring encrypted information back to intelligible form.
Cryptology incorporates cryptanalysis, or code breaking, as well as code making; it is a slightly more general subject area than cryptography.
The time span necessary for a particular key to be authorized and to be used in a cryptographic system, which is a characteristic of PKI key management.
The validation and security protection coming from the appropriate application of technically solid cryptosystems such as encrypted SSL certificates.
An absolute and completely functional system for cryptography. It includes a solid Crypto-algorithm, necessities for the system's required functions and proper key choice and administration.
A society of users and developers who are devoted to generating systems for anonymous communications and secure server network access. The cypherpunk community is by and large against invasion of privacy or surveillance of any kind, so law enforcement frequently views them negatively. There does seem to be a relation between certain cypherpunks and some groups that engage in software piracy and other kinds of stealing of intellectual property. Password protected systems utilizing SSL encryption are much less vulnerable.
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